The law of proximity is one of the most fascinating gestalt principles to me. It shows just how much our brains work at trying to make order out of chaos. To put it simply the law of proximity states that when objects appear close to one another they tend to be perceived as a group.
Take constellations for example. When we look at the night sky we look for stars that are close to one another and try to find some sort of meaning. Based on their proximity to one another we have clustered groups of stars and given them specific names and shapes such as The Big Dipper or Orion’s Belt. We have essentially created meaning out of randomness.
Look at the image of circles below. On the left side it appears that the circles are haphazardly placed in no particular order. On the right side, even though the same circles are used, it is clear to us that the shape of a triangle has been formed. Our minds have found a unity amongst the shapes based on their proximity to one another.